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1–5.Early Sumerian pictographic tablet, c. 3100 BCE. This archaic  pictographic script contained the  seeds for the development of  writing. Information is structured  into grid zones by horizontal and  vertical division.
苏美尔人早期的石版画(公元前3100年),这些古代象形痕迹包含着人类书写发展的起源 seed(起源),信息在横向和纵向的方格内排列着
1–6.Archaic tablet fragment from the late fourth millennium BCE.  The drilled hole denotes a number,  and the pictographs represent animals  in this transaction of sheep and goats.
1–7. This clay tablet demonstrates  how the Sumerian symbols for “star”  (which also meant “heaven” or  “god”), “head,” and “water” evolved  from early pictographs (3100 BCE).  The latter were turned on their side  by 2800 BCEand evolved into early  cuneiform writing by 2500 BCE.
这些灰泥石板表示这些从 星星(也可能是指天堂或者上帝) 头 水苏美人符号是如何从早期的图形中演化而来。
The cradle of civilization 文明的摇篮

Until recent discoveries indicated that early peoples in Thailand may have practiced agriculture and manufactured pottery at an even earlier date, archaeologists had long believed that the ancient land of Mesopotamia, “the land between rivers,” was the cradle of civilization. Between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, which flow from the mountains of eastern Turkey across the land that is now Iraq and into the Persian Gulf, there lies a flat, once-fertile plain whose wet winters and hot,  dry summers proved very attractive to early human culture. Here, early humans ceased their restless nomadic wanderings and established a village society. Around 8000 bce, wild grain was planted, animals were domesticated, and agriculture began. By the year 6000 bce, objects were being hammered from copper; the Bronze Age was ushered in about 3000 bce, when copper was alloyed with tin to make durable tools and weapons. The invention of the wheel followed.
nomadic  游牧的
domesticated   adj.喜欢家庭生活的;(指动物)被驯养了的
copper 铜的    ushe r陪同   hammer 捶打制成    alloeyed 合金的  tin 锡
最近发现显示居住在泰国的早期人类在比较的早的时间就已经有农业和陶器的制作,考古学家长期认为古代两河之间的美索不达米亚地区是文明的发源地。在底格里斯河与幼发拉底河之间的平原,这里平坦、肥沃的土地以及湿润的冬季干热夏季吸引着早期人类在这定居,两河从土耳其东部山脉流出,横穿也就是现在的伊拉克,流入波斯湾。早期人们开始停止没有休止的游牧生活开始定居建立村庄。大约公元前8000年前,伴随着小麦的种植 动物的圈养,农业开始了。公元前6000年前,物体是用铜捶打制成,公元前3000年铜器时代随之而来,用铜与锡的合金制造耐用的工具与武器。随之而来的是车轮的发明。
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