By 1500 bce priests had developed a cursory hieratic (from the Greek for “priestly”) script, a penstroke simplification of the hieroglyphic book hand, for use in religious writings. The earliest hieratic script differed from the hieroglyphs only in that the use of a rush pen, instead of a pointed brush, produced more abstract characters with a terse, angular quality. An even more abstract script called demotic (from the Greek word for “popular”) came into secular use for commercial and legal writing by the year 400 bce. The hieroglyph for scribe was a pictorial image of the very early brush holder, palette, and sack of ink. The characters accompanying the photograph of these artifacts show this evolution (Fig. 1–30). Hieratic and demotic scripts supplemented rather than supplanted hieroglyphs, which continued in use for religious and inscriptional purposes.

到了公元前1500年,牧师已经发展了一个粗略的神职人员(来自希腊语的“祭司”)剧本,简化了象形文字的手书,用于宗教着作。最早的叛徒剧本与象形文字的不同之处仅在于使用匆忙的笔而不是尖头笔,产生了更抽象的角色,具有简洁的角度质量。一个名为demotic的更抽象的脚本(来自希腊语中的“流行”)在400年代之前就被用于商业和法律写作。抄写员的象形文字是早期笔刷,调色板和墨水袋的图像。伴随照片的人物,这些文物显示了这种演变(图1-30)。神圣和民主的脚本补充而不是取代象形文字,这些象形文字继续用于宗教和铭文目的。

The first illustrated manuscripts
第一个插图手稿

The Egyptians were the first people to produce illustrated manuscripts in which words and pictures were combined to communicate information. A preoccupation with death and a strong belief in the afterlife compelled the Egyptians to evolve a complex mythology about the journey into the afterlife. Through inventive myth and legend, the inexplicable was explained and faced. A final judgment would ultimately allow the deceased either to be admitted into the company of the gods or to suffer eternal damnation. The prayer of every Egyptian was to be cleansed of sin and found worthy at the final judgment. Scribes and artists were commissioned to prepare funerary papyri, called the Chapters of Coming Forth by Day. A nineteenth-century scholar named them the Book of the Dead, and this name is generally used today

埃及人是第一批制作插图手稿的人,其中的文字和图片相结合起来传达信息。对死亡的关注和对来世的坚定信念迫使埃及人发展出一个关于来世之旅的复杂神话。通过创造性的神话和传说,解释和面对莫名其妙的事物。最后的判决最终将使死者被允许进入众神的公司或遭受永恒的诅咒。每个埃及人的祷告都要被洗净,并在最后的审判中被认为是有价值的。委托文员和艺术家委托他们制作随葬品纸莎草纸,称为白天即将到来的章节。一位十九世纪的学者将他们命名为“死者之书”,这个名字今天通常被使用